HABWATCH

habcartouche

HABWATCH Group

Presentation1

Conclusions & Perspectives

Conclusions and perpectives are presented in the presentations below which was the closing presentation given during the Habwatch workshop. A second one was prepared to be given during the fifth POGO meeting on November 18-20, 2003 in Yokohama, Japan (see http://ocean-partners.org).

Powerpoint slideshow without narration Conclusion and perpectives

A more complete synthesis was published as Real Time Observations Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms: Theory, Instrumentation and Modelling.Babin, M., Cullen, J., Roesler, C., (Eds.). 2008. UNESCO Publishing, 860 p. Order here.

Click here to get all abstracts of the contributed presentations (ps: hyperlinks below not active).

Habwatch Conference Overview

There is a great deal of interest throughout the world in the installation of ocean observation systems to provide the data and knowledge needed to detect and forecast physical, chemical and biological changes in coastal and open-ocean ecosystems. Recent advances in instrumentation, communications and modelling capabilities have led to the design of prototype real-time observation and prediction systems for coastal ecosystems. Important phenomena in coastal waters include flooding and coastal erosion, oxygen depletion due to eutrophication, and harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, many of the new approaches are unfamiliar to potential users. Optical and chemical sensors are, for instance, increasingly used from various platforms. Effective use of these sensors does not necessarily require advanced technical training, but it does require knowledge of the underlying theoretical and technical principles, how to properly deploy these instruments, methods for processing data, approaches for interpreting the results within reasonable limits, and how such results can be incorporated into different kinds of predictive models.

We therefore are convening a "Workshop on real-time coastal observing systems for ecosystem dynamics and harmful algal blooms" on 11-21 June 2003 at the Observatoire Océanologique and Citadelle of Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. The idea of this workshop initially emerged from the Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms Dynamics of ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea), and our plan is supported by GEOHAB (Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms; IOC and SCOR), and the Coastal Ocean Observing Panel (COOP) of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and initiated with major support from the European Commission. Additional endorsements and sponsorships have made the workshop possible; they are greatly appreciated.

Objectives

Through plenary lectures, contributed presentations, demonstrations and practical tutorials:Review real-time and near real-time sensing systems applicable for observation, modelling and prediction of plankton dynamics in coastal waters, including HABs. Present the underlying theory and review the possibilities together with the current issues and limitations. Topics will include:
  1. Remote sensing of coastal waters.
  2. In situ optical measurements, both passive and active.
  3. Automated methods for detection of plankton species or toxins.
  4. Integrated observation systems combining various kinds of detectors (optical, chemical, hydrodynamical, ...), including moorings and autonomous vehicles.
  5. Continuous underway sampling systems (e.g., from ferries).
  6. Tools for characterising distribution of plankton in relation to physical and chemical properties.
More through the plenary lectures and demonstrations than through the practical tutorials:
  1. Elaborate guidelines for the development of strategic and rational use of optical sensors for specific HABs problems.
  2. Explore approaches for integrating data from various sensing systems to describe ecosystem processes in support of HAB research, monitoring and prediction (e.g., information systems).
  3. Review of prognostic models designed to use real-time observations of variables related to coastal ecosystem dynamics and HABs.
  4. Introduce and review data assimilation techniques.

Format

The workshop will be designed to welcome a total of up to 90 attendees, including about 40 invited lecturers and demonstrators. Selection of the 50 participants/contributors will favor students and end users of coastal observation systems; a primary criterion for selection will be the degree of benefit the applicant expects to derive from knowledge gained from the workshop. The workshop will last 10 days and include the following activities:
  1. Plenary sessions with overview lectures complemented by contributed oral presentations and debates. On the one hand, emerging technologies and innovative approaches will be discussed. On the other hand, debates will be directed such that concrete conclusions are drawn on how the various techniques can be used in a concrete and rational way. The scope of these presentations will extend beyond observation systems to real-time modelling and prediction.
  2. Poster sessions to extend over several days. Computer-based presentations of real-time observations will be encouraged.
  3. Practical tutorials with demonstrations in the laboratory and in the field. Each tutorial is presented several times to a different group of about 10 - 12 participants. The tutorials will take place on different platforms (laboratory, pier, small and medium size boats). Demonstrations of real-time data acquisition will be given using different operational systems through internet.
  4. Intercomparisons and practical demonstrations of instruments. Sustained simultaneous deployment of instruments throughout the workshop would be encouraged. As far as is practical, manufacturers would be given the opportunity to demonstrate instruments or systems. Emerging technologies will also be presented through demonstrations.
  5. Industrial exhibitors will be allowed to advertise their instruments and observation systems at their own expense.

This workshop is dedicated to an international audience, and is intended to provide the participants with both the theory relevant to understanding the basic principles of real-time observation and modelling tools, and tutorials to allow the use of these tools. In addition to HABs research, this workshop will contribute the objectives of GOOS, and especially to its coastal component. Our expectation is that all participants will then have enough skills to initiate the deployment and use of real-time observation and modelling systems, and will understand the current capabilities and limits of these tools. The plenary sessions of the Workshop will take place at the auditorium of the Citadelle de Villefranche-sur-Mer which can host up to 180 persons. Villefranche-sur-Mer is nearby Nice which is easily accessible through its international airport. Lodging facilities in Villefranche-sur-Mer are all within 10 minutes walking distance, and there are numerous cheap restaurants where the participants will have their meals of choice. The tutorials, demonstrations and poster sessions will take place at the Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche (OOV), at 5 minutes walking distance from the Citadelle. All necessary classrooms and laboratories will be available as well as a small pier and small boats for instrument deployment in the Bay of Villefranche. Some of the laboratory material available on site will be used for tutorials (in situ sensors, glassware, ...).

Proceedings

A new model of publication will be explored and implemented. Recognizing innovations in digital communications, rapidly expanding access to the Internet, fast-moving progress in the field of ocean observation and modelling, and the nature of the topic (real-time presentation of large amounts of data, including innovative visualization techniques), proceedings will be disseminated on a multimedia platform. Speakers will be asked to use PowerPoint or similar software to prepare digital presentations. Annotated versions of the presentations with links, animations, etc. will be compiled in a CD-ROM and posted on a web site and maintained for a minimum of two years. Presentations will be edited for consistency. Additionally, a number of forecast simulations will be built and added to the proceedings. These simulations will include real-time connection to operational data servers, download of data, model calculations, and animated illustration of the forecast on maps. This new model will require careful development through consultation. Resources will be required for technical aspects of the digital material.

In addition, chapters based on invited lectures will be published in a peer-reviewed volume of the UNESCO series "Monographs on oceanographic methodology", with Marcel Babin, Collin Roesler, and John Cullen as editors. This volume should have a shelf life of up to 10 years, and it provides an excellent opportunity to review this rapidly developing field.

Conference schedule:

DayChairTimeContent

Wed.

11/6

Babin, Marcel

08:45-09:00

Welcome (M. Babin)

09:00-10:00

Lecture No. 1: Overview on observation and prediction of HABs (J.Cullen)

10:00-10:30

Coffee break

10:30-11:30

Lecture No. 2: Overview on physical and chemical dynamics of coastal ecosystems (T.Dickey)

11:30-12:30

Lecture No. 3: Overview of optical observation of biological variability (O. Schofield)

12:30-14:00

Lunch

14:00-15:00

Lecture No. 4: Overview of chemical and physical sensors (T. Dickey)

15:00-15:30

Discussion (J. Cullen, M. Babin)

 

15:30-16:00

Coffee break

Lewis, Marlon

16:00-17:00

Lecture No. 5: Theory and state-of-the-art on optical properties of phytoplankton (A. Morel)

17:00-18:00

Lecture No. 6: Description of the different methods for in situ measurement of inherent optical properties, and assessment of their potential for HABs detection (C. Roesler)

18:00-18:30

Discussion (M. Lewis)

Thu.

12/6

Geider, Richard 08:30-09:00 Contributed oral presentation No. 1 (see abstract): Multi-scale bio-optical sampling in ice covered coastal waters (Smith and Vernet)

09:00-09:30

Contributed oral presentation No. 2 (see abstract): Spectral backscatter measurements in a coastal ecosystem (Briggs)

09:30-10:30

Lecture No. 7: Theory and current literature on, and in situ measurement of the phytoplankton fluorescence, with emphasis on HABs (M. Babin)

10:30-11:00

Coffee break

11:00-11:30

Contributed oral presentation No. 3 (see abstract): Estimating group fractionated primary production for prochlorophytes and eukaryotes using fast repetition rate fluorometry (Omachi and Aiken)

11:30-12:00

Contributed oral presentation No. 4 (see abstract): The pump and probe fluorometric method of chlorophyll a and primary production determination (Ostrowska and Wozniak)

12:00-12:30

Discussion (R. Geider)

 

12:30-14:00

Lunch

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Inherent Optical Properties Groups A, B, C, D

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Fluorescence E, F, G, H

Frid.

13/6

Sosik, Heidi

08:30-09:30

Lecture No. 8: Measurement of seawater reflectance and vertical attenuation coefficient, with emphasis on HABs (M.R. Lewis)

09:30-10:00

Contributed oral presentation No. 5 (see abstract): An evaluation of hyperspectral detection and monitoring of bloom events of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis (Lohrenz et al.)

10:00-10:30

Coffee break

10:30-11:30

Lecture No. 9: Physics and Physical Modeling of Harmful Algal Blooms (P. Franks)

11:30-12:30

Lecture No. 10: Acoustical detection and underwater imaging (J. Jaffe)

 

12:30-14:00

Lunch

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Inherent Optical Properties Groups E, F, G, H

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Fluorescence Groups A, B, C, D

Sat.

14/6

Medlin, Linda

08:30-09:45

Lecture No. 11: Biosensors and toxin detection
(Chris Scholin and Gregg Doucette)

09:45-10:15

Contributed oral presentation No. 6 (see abstract): Real-time PCR assays for the detection of HAB species from brackish lagoonal ponds in South Carolina, USA (Kempton et al.)

10:15-10:45

Coffee break

10:45-11:15

Contributed oral presentation No. 7 (see abstract): Application of DNA-chip technology for the monitoring of phytoplankton composition (Kerkmann et al.)

11:15-11:45

Contributed oral presentation No. 8 (see abstract): HAB centers of excellence proof of concept for identification development testing and distribution of HAB assays sensors and standards (Sellner et al.)

11:45-12:30

Discussion (A. Cembella, D. Anderson)

 

12:30-14:00

Lunch

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Apparent Optical Properties Groups A, B, C, D

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Emerging technologies Groups E, F, G, H

Sun.

15/6

Roesler, Collin

08:30-09:30

Lecture No. 12: Relationships between optical properties and seawater constituents (H. Sosik)

09:30-10:00

Contributed oral presentation No. 9 (see abstract): The ability of inverse absorption and reflectance models to derive algal size and chemotaxonomic descriptors: an assessment(Bernard)

10:00-10:30

Coffee break

10:30-11:30

Lecture No. 13: Overview of Ocean Colour theoretical background, sensors, and applicability for the detection and monitoring of HABs (capabilities, limitations) (K. Ruddick)

11:30-12:00

Contributed oral presentation No. 10 (see abstract): Mapping coastal autrophication in Hong Kong using portable water-quality observation systems for small vessels and satellite remote sensing (Woods and Kester)

12:00-12:30

Discussion (A. Morel, M. Kahru)

 

12:30-14:30

Lunch

14:30-19:00

Tutorial on Remote sensing All groups at ACRI-ST

Mon.

16/6

 

 

 
Day Off

Tues.

17/6

 

08:30-11:00

Tutorial on Apparent Optical Properties Groups E, F, G, H

11:00-13:00

Tutorial on Emerging technologies Groups A, B, C, D

13:00-14:30

Lunch

14:30-18:30

Poster session

Wed.

18/6

Dickey, Tommy

08:30-09:30

Lecture No. 14: Development and deployment of an instrumented mooring (B. Karlson)

09:30-10:00

Contributed oral presentation No.11 (see abstract): The UK marine environment real-time observation system (MEROS) network (Mills et al.)

10:00-10:30

Contributed oral presentation No. 12 (see abstract): Monitoring phytoplankton blooms by use of hightech and traditional methods (Tangen)

10:30-11:00

Coffee break

11:00-12:00

Lecture No. 15: Glider and AUV observation systems (Gwyn Griffiths)

12:00-12:30

Discussion (T. Dickey, O. Schofield)

 

12:30-14:00

Lunch

Schofield, Oscar

14:00-15:00

Lecture No. 16: Overview of observation networks (T. Malone)

15:00-15:30

(see abstract): Alg@line - Joint operational unattended phytoplankton monitoring in the Baltic Sea (Ruokanen et al.)

15:30-16:00

Discussion (O. Schofield)

16:00-16:30

Coffee Break

16:30-17:30

Lecture No. 17: Overview on bio-fouling
(Compère)

17:30-18:30

Lecture No. 18: Modelling of Algal Dynamics in Sub-tropical Coastal Waters (J.Lee)

Thur.

19/6

Franks, Peter

08:30-09:30

Lecture No. 19: Modeling blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine (McGillicuddy)

09:30-10:30

Lecture No. 20: Modelling coastal dynamics and HABs in the Baltic Sea (Fennel)

10:30-11:00

Coffee break

11:00-12:00

Lecture No. 21: The integration of ocean color remote sensing with coastal nowcast/forecast simulations of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) (Bissett)

12:00-12:30

Discussion(D. Anderson)

 

12:30-14:00

Lunch

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Modelling Groups A, B, C, D

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Observation systems Groups E, F, G, H

Fri.

20/6

Fennel, Wolfgang

08:30-09:30

Lecture No. 22: Theoretical bases of various data assimilation techniques (Pinardi)

09:30-10:00

Contributed oral presentation No. 14 (see abstract): Bio-physical modeling in the North Atlantic: a regional intercomparison between the Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine and Irish shelf seas (Cahill et al.)

10:00-10:30

Contributed oral presentation No. 15 (see abstract): A quantitative hindcasting study of the inititiation and development of Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the western Gulf of Maine using a physical/biological model (Stock et al.)

10:30-11:00

Coffee Break

11:00-11:30

Contributed oral presentation No. 16 : Chesapeake Bay Observing System: toward detection and prediction of harmful algal blooms (W. Boicourt)

11:30-12:00

Contributed oral presentation No. 17 : Integrated monitoring and forecasting of harmful algae blooms in waters of concern to the Norwegian aquaculture industry (Nina Winther)

12:00-12:30

Discussion (W. Boicourt)

 

12:30-14:00

Lunch

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Modelling Groups E, F, G, H

14:00-18:30

Tutorial on Observation systems Groups E, F, G, H

Sat.

21/6

Malone, Tom

08:30-09:30

Lecture No. 23: The point of view of users (G. Pitcher)

09:30-10:00

Discussion

10:00-10:30

Coffee break

10:30-11:30

Lecture No. 24: Workshop retrospective (O. Schofield)

11:30-12:30

Discussion

 

12:30-14:00

Lunch

14:00-16:00

Synthesis and recommendations (J.Cullen, M. Babin)

Habwatch Invited Lecturers:

Lecturer:

Topic:

1. J. Cullen (CAN)

Overview on observation and prediction of HABs

2. T. Dickey (US)

Overview on physical and chemical dynamics of coastal ecosystems

3. O. Schofield (US)

Overview of optical observation of biological variability

4. T. Dickey (US)

Overview of chemical and physical sensors

5. A. Morel (F)

Theory and state-of-the-art on optical properties of phytoplankton and other marine substances, with emphasis on HABs"

6. C. Roesler (US)

Description of the different methods for in situ measurement of inherent optical properties, and assessment of their potential for HABs detection"

7. M. Babin (F)

Theory and current literature on, and in situ measurement of the phytoplankton fluorescence, with emphasis on HABs"

8. M. R. Lewis (CAN)

Measurement of seawater reflectance and vertical attenuation coefficient, with emphasis on HABs"

9. P. Franks (US)

Overview on physical modelling

10. J. Jaffee (US)

Acoustical detection and underwater imaging

11. C.Scholin (US)

and
G. Doucette (US)

Prospects of developing automated systems for detecting HAB species and toxins in-situ

Detection of HAB toxins: current approaches & potential for In-situ applications

12. H. Sosik (US)

Characterizing seawater constituents from optical properties

13. K. Ruddick (BE)

Overview of Ocean Colour theoretical background, sensors, and applicability for the detection and monitoring of HABs (capabilities, limitations)"

14. B. Karlson (SE)

Development and deployment of an instrumented mooring

15. G. Griffiths (UK)

Glider and AUV observation systems

16. T. Malone (US)

Overview of observation networks

17. C. Compère (F)

Overview on bio-fouling

18. J. Lee (CN)

Modelling of Algal Dynamics in Sub-tropical Coastal Waters

19. D. McGillicuddy (US)

Modeling blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine

20. W. Fennel (DE)

Modelling coastal dynamics and HABs in the Baltic Sea

21. P. Bissett (US)

The integration of ocean color remote sensing with coastal nowcast/forecast simulations of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

22. N. Pinardi (I)

Theoretical bases of various data assimilation techniques

23. G. Pitcher (RSA)

The point of view of users

24. O. Schofield (US)

Workshop retrospective

 

Habwatch Contributed Presentations

 

Author:

Topic:

1. R. Smith (US)

Multi-scale bio-optical sampling in ice covered coastal waters (see abstract)

2. A. Briggs (US)

Spectral backscatter measurements in a coastal ecosystem (see abstract)

3. C. Omachi (BR)

Estimating group fractionated primary production for prochlorophytes and eukaryotes using fast repetition rate fluorometry (see abstract)

4. M. Ostrowska (PL)

The pump and probe fluorometric method of chlorophyll a and primary production determination (see abstract)

5. S. Lohrenz (US)

An evaluation of hyperspectral detection and monitoring of bloom events of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis (see abstract)

6. J. W. Kempton (US)

Real-time PCR assays for the detection of HAB species from brackish lagoonal ponds in South Carolina, USA (see abstract)

7. K. Kerkmann (DE)

Application of DNA-chip technology for the monitoring of phytoplankton composition (see abstract)

8. K. Sellner (US)

HAB centers of excellence proof of concept for identification, development, testing and distribution of HAB assays sensors and standards (see abstract)

9. S. Bernard (RSA)

The ability of inverse absorption and reflectance models to derive algal size and chemotaxonomic descriptors: an assessment (see abstract)

10. W. L. Woods (US)

Mapping coastal eutrophication in Hong Kong using portable water-quality observation systems for small vessels and satellite remote sensing (see abstract)

11. D. Mills (UK)

The UK marine environment real-time observation system (MEROS) network (see abstract)

12. K. Tangen (N)

Monitoring phytoplankton blooms by use of hightech and traditional methods (see abstract)

13. L. Ruokanen (FI)

Alg@line - Joint operational unattended phytoplankton monitoring in the Baltic Sea (see abstract)

14. B. Cahill (IR)

Bio-physical modeling in the North Atlantic: a regional intercomparison between the Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine and Irish shelf seas (see abstract)

15. C. Stock (US)

A quantitative hindcasting study of the initiation and development of Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the western Gulf of Maine using a physical/biological model (see abstract)

16. W. C. Boicourt (US)

Chesapeake Bay Observing System: Toward detection and prediction of harmful algal blooms (see abstract)

17. N. Winther (N)

Integrated monitoring and forecasting of harmful algae blooms in waters of concern to the Norwegian aquaculture industry (see abstract)

 

Habwatch Tutorials:

In this tutorial, in situ instrumentation for measurement of inherent optical properties have been demonstrated. Emphasis has been put on techniques used for maximizing the retrieval of accurate data streams including calibration, maintenance, deployment, integration, data processing, and visualization. Additionally, demonstration of configuration options to be used to maximize the amount of information that can be obtained from routine observations has been presented. Emphasis has also been put ob the intricacies of seemingly similar instrumentation so as to provide the participants with sufficient information to make strategic decisions with regards to developing optical observing capabilities.
The tutorial was composed of the following modules :
 

 

In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence:

In this tutorial, the most popular techniques based on the measurement of in vivo fluorescence, both in the lab and in situ , have been demonstrated using commercial instruments and phytoplankton cultures.

 

The tutorial was composed of the following modules :

 

 

Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs):

The tutorial was composed of the following modules :

 

 

Emerging technologies:

The tutorial was composed of the following modules :

 

 

Remote sensing:

The tutorial was composed of the following modules :

 

 

Observational systems:

The tutorial was composed of the following modules :

 

 

 

Modeling:

In this tutorial, underlying details and approaches to modeling are highlighted, including problems encountered in the historical development of certain models, acknowledged weaknesses and strengths of different model types.

The tutorial was composed of the following modules :

A biologist’s perspective on modeling (D. Anderson)

Poster Presentations:

Click here to get all poster abstracts (links in table not active)

Author(s):
Title:
1. Ajuzie, Cyril and Houvenaghel, Guy T.
POTENTIAL HARMFUL MICROALGAE IN NIGERIAN COASTAL WATERS AND THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS ABOUT THE HAB PHENOMENON IN NIGERIA (see abstract)
2. Blouin, Frederick; Roy, Suzanne; Mas, Sébastien and Servet Cismeli
3. Bresnan, Eileen; Hay, S., Heath; M. R., Fraser; S., Smith, N.; Dunn, J.; Fraser, J. and Robinson, S.
4. Brown, Catherine A.; Huot, Yannick; Lewis, Marlon R. and Cullen, John J. 
5. Bruyant, Flavienne
6. Withdrawn
 
7. Ciavatta, Stefano and Pastres, R.
8. Ciotti, Aurea Maria; da Silveira, Ilson C. A.; Pompeu, Mayza; de Godoi, Sueli Susana; Calado, Leandro and Gaeta, Salvador Airton;
9. Clement, Alejandro; Aguilera, Alejandra and Fuentes, Claudio
10. E. Antoine, C. Compère, S. Cosnier, M.P. Crassous, H. Derbal, E. Erard-Le Denn, C. Gondran, E. Guilminot, M. Lehaitre, F. Mazeas, H. Moreau, H. Perrot, C.M. Pradier, M. Salmain
11. Donaghay, Percy L.; Sullivan, James M.; Moore, Casey, Rhoades, Bruce; and McManus, Margaret A.
12. Etheridge, Stacey M. and Roesler, Collin S.
13. Gall, Mark; Zeldis, John; Richardson, Ken; Pinkerton, Matt and Boyd, Philip
14. Gildor, Hezi; Sobel, Adam H.; Cane, Mark A. and Sambrotto, Raymond N.
15. Heng Hwee Hwee, Nick
16. Ibarra, Diego A.; Cembella, Allan D.; Grant, Jon and Cullen, John J.
17. Withdrawn
 
18. Kahru, Mati and Mitchell, B. Greg
19. Lips, Inga and Kanoshina, Urmas
MONITORING OF CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMS: NEW TECHNIQUES FOR REAL-TIME OBSERVATIONS AND SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS ON CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS (see abstract)
20. Kudela, Raphael M.; Durand, Dominique and Johannessen, Ola M.
21. Larouche, Pierre and Pettigrew, Bernard
22. Mahoney, Kevin L. and Lohrenz, Steve
23. Morales Blake, Alejandro; Estrada, M. and Blasco, D.
24. Nhu Hai, Doan and Ngoc Lam, Nguyen
25. Nieke, Barbara; Larouche, Pierre; Roy, Suzanne and Therriault, Jean Claude
TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC BIO-OPTICAL ALGORITHMS FOR INTERPRETATION OF OCEAN COLOUR IMAGES OF THE ESTUARY AND GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE (EASTERN CANADA) (see abstract)
26. Nolan, Glenn; Raine, Robin; Silke, Joe; Cusack, Caroline and Hess, Philipp
27. Oubelkheir, Kadija and Bricaud, A.
28. Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M.; Suylen, J.M.; Heins, C.; Roberti, J.R. and Laane, R.W.P.M.
29. Schroeder, Friedhelm; Petersen, Wilhelm; Petschatnikov, Michail and Colijn, Franciscus
30. Solé Ollé, Jordi; Estrada, M. and García-Ladona, E.
31. Stephens, Andrew
32. Torres, Ricardo and Allen, J. I.
33. Vila, Magda and Masó, Mercedes
34. Waters, Michael T.
35. Winther, Nina
36. Wong, Ken T.M.; Lee, Joseph H.W.; Lam, Ironside H.Y. and Hodgkiss; John I.
37. Woods, Katharine; Joint, Ian; Groom, Steve and Holligan, Patrick




Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs):